Pyrethrum Extract ('pie-wreath-rum') is a natural insecticide made from the flowers of certain species of the chrysanthemum plant. It is a mixture of several different compounds called pyrethrins and cinerins. Originally pyrethrum was made by grinding dried chrysanthemum flowers into a powder. Today, pyrethrum is extracted with solvents but is still widely used in household insect sprays where it is usually combined with another chemical called piperonyl butoxide.
Source Chrysanthemum Species Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum ( e.g. C. cinerariifolium and C. coccineum) family- Asteraceae, cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads. They are all perennial plants with a daisy-like appearance and white petals. Pyrethrum was used for centuries as an insecticide , and as a lice remedy in the Middle East (Persian Powder, also known as 'Persian Pellitory'). It was sold worldwide under the brand Zacherlin by Austrian industrialist J. Zacherl. Because of the natural insecticidal properties of the pyrethrums, they are used as companion plants, to repel pest insects from nearby crops and ornamental plants. They are thought to repel aphids, leafhoppers, spider mites, harlequin bugs, ticks, pickleworms and imported cabbage worms, among others that are in gardens and farms. For example, they are planted among broccoli plants for protection from several common insect pests. C. cinerariifolium - (Dalmatian chrysanthemum) looks more like the common daisy than other pyrethrums. Its flowers, typically white with a yellow center, grow from numerous fairly rigid stems. Plants have blue-green leaves and grow to between 45 to 60 cm in height.Common names for Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium -Pyrethrum , Pyrethrum daisy, Dalmatian pyrethrum, Dalmatian chrysanthemum, Dalmatian Insect Flower, Dalmatian pellitory, Big Daisy.
A natural source of insecticide. The active components, pyrethrins present in the seed cases, are extracted and sold in the form of an oleoresin. This is applied as a suspension in water or oil, or as a powder. Pyrethrins attack the nervous systems of all insects, and inhibit female mosquitoes from biting. Have an insect repellent effect in less amounts. They are harmful to fish, but are far less toxic to mammals and birds than many synthetic insecticides and are non-persistent, being biodegradable and also breaking down easily on exposure to light. They are considered to be amongst the safest insecticides for use around food. Kenya produced 90% (over 6,000 tonnes) of the world's pyrethrum in 1998, called py for short. Production in Tanzania and Ecuador is also significant. C. coccineum- (Persian chrysanthemum) is native to Caucasus and looks somewhat like a daisy. It produces large white, pink or red flowers. The leaves resemble those of ferns, and the plant grows to between 30 and 60 cm in height. The flowering period is June to July in temperate climates (Northern hemisphere). C. coccineum also contains insecticidal pyrethrum substances but it is a poor source compared to C. cinerariifolium.Common names for Chrysanthemum coccineum - Pyrethrum, Pyrethrum daisy, Painted daisy, Persian chrysanthemum, Persian Insect Flower, Persian pellitory, Caucasian Insect Powder Plant